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How to Insulate Damaged Existing Wires with Heat Shrink Tubing
It is critically important that wire insulation be intact. In some cases electrical tape can be used to protect damaged insulation, but if the insulation is breaking apart and disintegrating when moved, then heat shrink tubing is the best option.
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When working on old wiring in your home it is important to inspect the condition of the wiring's insulation. The insulation used on old wiring can fray and become brittle, literally crumbling in your hand as the wire conductor is moved.
In the above photo you can see how the insulation is brittle and wiring is actually exposed. This condition is very dangerous and can create short circuits and fire hazard. Ordinarily, you can just wrap 2 or 3 wraps of electrical tape around the damaged area. However, with old, brittle insulation, it will come apart and be made worse as you try to wrap the old wire and insulation with electrical tape. Fortunately, this can be fairly easily fixed using something called "Heat Shrink Tubing" as I'll describe in the next step.
Heat Shrink Tubing